# Tractive Effort Calculation Pdf

**
**

* The tractive effort was raised by some 500 lb. AALS 7¼"g wheel standards. 3 Aerodynamic Resistance 2. Vehicle Performance Prediction viz. 4 cm Rail Clearance 3" 76. As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total traction that is parallel to the direction of motion. All the above produce a restraining force working against the tractive force. Module Title: Applied Mechanics 1 Module Code: CIVL 6001 Calculate the reactions R1 and R2. Therefore, Tractive Effort was more important than HorsePower for steam locomotives. The frictional surface of the drive pulley is the surface of the pulley, as for linear drive, the frictional surface is the contact area of the conveyor belt with the intermediate drive. 370 ins = 3. a) Formulate the expression for the tractive effort during acceleration period of a locomotive train. The stalled tractive effort: 325 x 2 x 12. 308 for 18 teeths Therefore Y=0. at full load. In addition, another key factor in operating would be the range of speed available, which with a geared locomotive in particular can be rather restricted:. tractive effort and a smooth ride. 1-6 Le3 27/3 OW Non-ideal vehicle components, The conventional vehicle. 2 Tractive Effort and Resistance 2. The maximum tensile strength of current couplers is considered to be 400,000 pounds. • The same. The tractive force must be greater than or equal to the resistive forces in order to maintain a sustainable motion. System Energy Optimisation Strategies for Metros with Regeneration Zhongbei Tiana*, Paul Westona, Stuart Hillmansena, Clive Robertsa, Ning Zhaoa, Lei Chena. doc Page 8 of 173 DMJ, 2010-05-17 2 Simulation Philosophy position, effort, speed voltage, effort current effort PSC ATM OpenPowerNet Figure 1 Overview of co-simulation. The term tractive effort is often qualified as starting tractive effort, continuous tractive effort and maximum tractive effort. 8 CHAPTER 6. Calculations of tractive effort, power, specific energy consumption for given run, effect of varying acceleration and braking retardation, adhesive weight and braking retardation adhesive weight and coefficient of adhesion. Boiler pressure was 200 pounds and the locomotives would exert 94,880 pounds tractive effort. 3) Max possible acceleration of vehicle: · A max = (Tractive effort – Tractive force). Based upon a. The stalled tractive effort: 325 x 2 x 12. 1 select the type of gear box (Manual / Automatic) 2. 9 Definition of dead weight, accelerating weight and adhesion weight 7. 1) (Giri 2006). If the rear wheels of the vehicle in Fig. Problems should be. An Evaluation of Natural Gas-fueled Locomotives. This energy wears the tires and compacts the soil to a degree that may cause detrimental crop production (Burt et al. 308 Cs=Starting torque/rated Torque=1. 2 m 2, for small and mid size cars C d = coefficient of aerodynamics resistance (drag coefficient) ≈ 0. The tractive effort (horizontal force) is a critical factor related to the bucket filling. Product Navigation. Macmillan (vi) Rolling (motion) resistance, R is the force opposing motion of the wheel that arises from the non-recoverable energy expended in deforming the surface and wheel. 2 it can be seen that this generation of thrust can be isolated to two extreme cases: c = 0 and = 0. 4 2902 1316 NOTE: All performance data is based on a 14,600 lb. 202 kg/m 3, at sea level and at 15 o C A f = car frontal area [m 2] ≈ 1. Integrate Track Model •Various speeds, slopes, terrain conditions, steering, etc. to 18 411 lb. Boiler pressure was 200 pounds and the locomotives would exert 94,880 pounds tractive effort. 2 Maxi-Stack Well-Type Intermodal Car. 7 Vehicle Acceleration 25. F gross tractive effort FC fuel consumption FEI fuel economy index Fp gross tractive effort by power tiller g acceleration due to gravity GTR gross traction ratio h′ CG height of power tiller from ground HoM height of material; ht height of CG in the trolley from ground Hv vertical height of hitch point. To find the net drawbar pull, subtract the rolling resistance from the tractive effort. cornering, which also has a marked influence on the tractive effort required. tractive effort of the wheel-slip axle changes, which causes pitching of the bogie and the carbody. Tractive effort calculation for Motor selection including wheel slip, Steering performance predictions Driveline calculations & selection Brake calculations considering Electric bus weight distribution Steering system kinematic analysis using MBD. Openshaw Taylor, Orient Longman. The frictional surface of the drive pulley is the surface of the pulley, as for linear drive, the frictional surface is the contact area of the conveyor belt with the intermediate drive. than the tractive effort. Each motor must be perfectly tailored and optimized from a system perspective, rather than being mechanically. The C62 was built with a 4-6-4 frame, upon which was mounted the boiler of the JNR Class D52 2-8-2 locomotives. tractiveeffort. (1) and Eq. Washington, D. 10 Vehicle power on a gradient 128 11. Tractive Effort Definition: Tractive effort is defined as the force at the rims or the outer edges of the driving wheels of moving trains. The calculator can be used for imperial and metric units as long as the use of units are consistent. θ Step 5: The tractive force ratio, K, (the fraction of the bottom tractive force applied to the channel side) is: 53 0. Calculate the power used. From the measurement of the speed loss one can calculate the loss of kinetic energy, which is the sum of the rolling resistance and the potential energy loss or gain resulting from the inclinations of the track. Specific horsepower and tractive effort ratings used in calculation for individual locomotive models: 1. Tractive effort, acceleration and braking. Trains are, therefore, limited to light grades even though rail lines must cross uneven or mountainous terrain. Let's do the arithmetic: 1,550 lbs / 8 lbs / Ton = 193. 0672 Email: [email protected] 4 2902 1316 NOTE: All performance data is based on a 14,600 lb. Factor of adhesion for a DC locomotive is usually taken as 22-25% on dry jointed rail. 𝑔, a) Calculate and plot the graph of tractive Effort against vehicle speed on a level road, from 0 to 70 m/s. 2 it can be seen that this generation of thrust can be isolated to two extreme cases: c = 0 and = 0. Tractive effort kN Axle load Propulsion Fuel Engineers 300 20 tonne Electric Diesel Always drivers 350 22,5 tonne Some duo-locos LNG/Diesel Some driverless 400 25 tonne Most duo-locos LNG/electric All driverless Trains Train lengths in RFC Train weight 550-850 m 2 200 tonnes 750-1000 m 4 400 tonnes 1000-2000 m 10 000 tonnes 4. The Wheel Torque calculated in Step Five is the total wheel torque. The calculated wheel radius is r w. Power is the force needed to run a train at a certain speed. braking performance rating 8000 KW Maximum speed 110 mph (177 km/h) *Data is subject to change pending Caltrain's design approval **6-car units extendable to 7 or 8-car trainsets KCAL0716us technical features technology. Tire Traction can also refer to the maximum tractive force between a body and a surface, as limited by available friction; when this is the case, traction is often expressed as the ratio of the maximum tractive force to the normal force and is termed the. Influence of Locomotive Tractive Effort on the Forces Between Wheel and Rail Article (PDF Available) in Vehicle System Dynamics 35(Supplement):7-22 · January 2001 with 1,064 Reads. To find the net drawbar pull, subtract the rolling resistance from the tractive effort. engine torque, T e = 150 Nm. 4 Butterworth Differentiating Filter 43 4. These points served to screen the effects of the variables on the overall system performance and provide a means to predict their impact on vehicle performance. ii) Speed- time, torque-speed & speed -current curves for electric locomotive. Calculate the mechanical power. Tractive Power Corporation is a manufacturing, design and engineering company for industrial rail products and technology solutions. Pushing the Limits of Possibility. Build Basic GT-Drive Model Input vehicle parameters –Sprocket radius –Track length –Shoe/link geometry. The fuel used when the vehicle is idle. To save fuel and money, trains tend to have no more power than they need. So tractive force, when used in this thesis, is defined as per paragraph 7. Therefore the maximum force that the tire can handle without peeling out, limits the drive torque supplied by the power train [7]. Tractive Effort Tractive Effort refers to the amount of force available at the wheel or wheels of the vehicle and represents the maximum possible pull a vehicle could exert, if it had no resistance to movement. , hotel loads, trash compaction, boom operation, etc. Tractive Effort. F = traction effort or force acting on the wheel from the surface (N, lb f) μ t = traction - or friction - coefficient between the wheel and the surface. " So for example; A car of mass 1000kg has an engine which produces a tractive force of 500N and at a certain moment in time the car is travelling at 5ms-1, whilst experiencing resistances of 200N. Type of electric drives, choice of motor, starting and running characteristics, speed control, temperature rise, particular applications of electric drives, types of industrial loads, continuous, intermittent and variable loads, load qualization. 7 Power required to propel vehicle 124 Power available 124 11. 1) (Giri 2006). 8 Lecture-08 Calculation of power required for propulsion 9 Lecture-09 Tractive effort and traction 10 Lecture-10 Road performance curves 11 Class-Test-I & Assignment-1 MODULE -II 12 Lecture-11 Clutch: Types of clutch , Material and construction of clutch 13 Lecture-12 Calculation of main dimension of dry friction clutch. tractive work, which is why its drawbar performance are essential. This load can be hauled over a maximal track gradient of 12 ‰. 1 Maximum Tractive Effort 18. Type of electric drives, choice of motor, starting and running characteristics, speed control, temperature rise, particular applications of electric drives, types of industrial loads, continuous, intermittent and variable loads, load qualization. 3 Calculation for graph vehicle performance curve 16 3. (An amount of torque distributed to the wheel from differential divided by wheel radius is the tractive effort ) An. 640 Hardwick Rd Unit 1, Bolton, ON L7E 5R1 Tel: 905. Tractive Effort (TE) and Tractive Resistance (TR) Tractive effort (TE): If the rear wheels of the vehicle in the figure are driven with no slip taking place between the tires and the level road surface, the wheel force or the tractive effort (TE) is equal to the torque at the driven wheels (T w) divided by the rolling radius or effective radius (R w). (i)Explain the recent trends in electric traction systems (8) (ii). moving in a straight line, the drawbar pull is equal to tractive effort minus: 1. Please do not modify it. 4 Figure1:Tractiveeffort. Also, the Derived Torque shape will be the same shape as Roller torque for a manual car, but can be quite different and. Calculated p. Tractive Effort. EMD SD70MAC (EMD 16-710G3B; 4000 THP) a. Induction motor control: VVVF control, PWM control and CVVF control. the engine throu gh the drivetrain and finally through the tractive device. This force is directly proportional to the locomotive horsepower and inversely proportional to the locomotive speed. 3 VIA Rail We modelled two basic types of trains for VIA’s operations. criteria such as tractive effort, acceleration performance, grade-ability, max speed of the vehicle are evaluated, based on which the reduction ratio is calculated. Optimum winding conditions: calculation of. As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total traction that is parallel to the direction of motion. 60 % operating factor and tropicalised as a standard for greater longevity. primary component of a system designed to provide a significant tractive or load-bearing effort to subsea cable or umbilical. 5 COSMOS Works simulation 20 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION. The transporters hydraulic system has been adjusted to its maximum operating pressure setting of ≅ 6000 psi. to 18 411 lb. Transmission Calculations Transmission calculations give the power transmitting values through the system i n terms of Top Speed and Acceleration and the Time required to achieve it with the selected parameters for our electric golf cart and the total tractive effort. In addition, a standardised approach for energy consumption calculations for HSR is provided and an investigation of the cause of inconsistencies in previous work is presented. Starting tractive effort 540 kN (up to 23 mph) Starting acceleration, gross 2,24 mphps (1. A rocket flies at 120 m/s under a propulsion force of 3 000 N. Wet rail will knock adhesion down to about 18%, but sand will get you back to 22-25%. Figure 7 Von Mises Stress distribution. 9 13206 5990 2nd 10. As the truck nears highway speed, the inter-axle shaft is disconnected from the power divider, allowing the axle to operate in a more efﬁcient 6x2 mode. In the context of tractive effort, the most powerful locomotives currently in regular service in the U. In issue 3 of the "KfzAnzeiger" [the "Motor Vehicle Advertiser"], this connection was investigated for the first time by means of a road test. This article addresses model development and initial investigations of its dynamic behaviour in order to establish appropriate energy management strategies for the. Hoisting: Hoisting equipment, Basic hoisting systems and their special application to different mine conditions, Hoisting calculations, Steel rope design and selection. Based upon a. 1mph for faster. Over Drive and free wheel, Universal joint. Tractive Effort is a measure of the force that a locomotive can apply to the train it is pulling. MARTINDALE'S CALCULATORS ON-LINE CENTER ENGINEERING CENTER SOLAR, SOLID WASTE, TRANSPORTATION, WATER & WASTEWATER TREATMENT, & WELDING (Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets, and where Applicable includes: Courses, Manuals,. Friction of air over vehicle body (12%) 3. Tractive Effort and Resistance Major sources of vehicle resistance: Aerodynamic Rolling (originates from the roadway surface/tire interface) Grade or gravitational Tractive Effort and Resistance Illustration of forces with vehicle force diagram F f + F r = ma + R a + R rlf + R rlr + R g F= ma+ R a + R rl + R g Fig. 6 Calculation of Locomotive Tractive Effort The data on the previous pages enables the trac-tive effort required to start and haul a train to be calculated for any particular set of requirements, the example in the box below and overleaf being for a locomotive intended for service on a large. steam demand over the boiler's full load range. The resultant force F (tractive effort or braking force) is then the vector sum of these three, ie F = ma + F f + mg sinθ. 2 Calculation of Acceleration 40 4. The Association of American Railroads. Tractive effort curves of EURO 4000 and CRH-3. As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total traction that is parallel to the direction of motion. Available Tractive Effort Tractive effort determined by: Force of vehicle’s engine Maximum value transferable Maximum Tractive Effort Define the point at which additional engine-generated tractive effort is not productive. 640 Hardwick Rd Unit 1, Bolton, ON L7E 5R1 Tel: 905. The exact location of your dog can be accessed directly via the free app. no modification of existing tracks is required while converting from steam to diesel-electric traction. The surplus force accelerates the vehicle. 8kN), which is intresting as the D57 was a bit more powerful then the 58 that was built as an improvement, but were infact not as good as the 57's. the engine throu gh the drivetrain and finally through the tractive device. cornering, which also has a marked influence on the tractive effort required. • Determines tractive effort based on train performance • Considers rolling, acceleration and drag resistance • Analyze train trip times • Calculate train movement patterns • Identify power supply inadequacies / pinch points. Next, calculation of the required ratio and transmission stage of the vehicle are done based on the tractive effort calculated beforehand. The two parts carry on in the same direction with. Amperage to Tractive Effort table for an SD40-2 Several people have asked me if I have an Amps to Tractive Effort chart. (b) Tractive effort versus speed. Big Boy Locomotive Weights and Dimensions. 6 Hours TEXT BOOKS: 1. Differential Gear Mechanism of Rear Axle. increase job site efficiency; the AP500E meets these objectives and more. Tractive effort to accelerate the train at 2 mph/sec : 1. Introduction to Highway Transportation Engineering, Module 02: The Vehicle, the Driver and the Roadway Part 2-B: Tractive Resistance. F G = Force due to gradient of a slope. Large Steering Tyres. Tractive effort and Resistance to motion Tractive effort Resistance to motion I have extended the speed range on the graph to show the point where the resistance to motion gets larger than the tractive effort. A large capacity torque converter with lock-up gives Komatsu large wheel loaders great tractive effort to power into the pile and fill the bucket to capacity, then quickly gain speed when maneuvering and climb up hills or ramps faster than previous models. Tractive effort or tractive force is measured in kilo-Newtons (kN) or pounds force (lbf) where 1 kN = 228. In the context of tractive effort, the most powerful locomotives currently in regular service in the U. Every motion of a vehicle is accompanied with resis-tances along the track and the tractive effort is needed to overcome these resistances. 4 Traction or Tractive Force Tractive force is the force used for generate the variation between tangential surface and body. Steam Tractive Effort Calculator. Introduced micro-processor controls to improve fuel efficiency and tractive effort with Dash 8 loco. Vehicle Performance Prediction viz. What is the nature of these forces, where do they originate,. Another advantage of 3 phase a. 1) indicates that speed and acceleration depend on tractive effort, resist-ance, and vehicle mass. 3, the traction effort with a rail-road slope of 10‰ is presented. This paper defines methods for the determination of basic traction characteristics of railway traction vehicles: basic resistance and tractive effort produced on the wheel tread, provided we have experimental data. For a rear-wheel drive car:. This energy wears the tires and compacts the soil to a degree that may cause de trimental crop production (Burt et al. Tractive Effort vs Speed Characteristics. These motors are typically forced cooled from an external fan, an arrangement that requires a high degree of integration into the car body. The train movement simulator gives the exact location, as well as active and reactive power demands of the train in each time step. TE = Vehicle tractive effort required to ascend the grade q = Grade Angle (degrees) G = Gradeability (percent) 4. Rubber silent block Injection moulded type Tends to centralise the bogie w. Tractive Effort. the normal force, equals the maximum tractive force can be applied at the contact area. traffic and terminals. Report prepared by: BNSF Railway Company. Rolling stock data OpenTrack stores each locomotive's technical characteristics, including tractive effort/speed diagrams, load, length, adhesion factor, and power systems. , and the radius of the wheel (1/2 the diameter). Big Boys were also cleared to run from. 3 Example Calculation of graph engine speed vs. Reece concludes that the theory is oversimplified but feels it is probably adequate for evaluating two wheel versus four wheel drive 62 tractors. Those are Tractive effort, breaking force coming to the structure when the sudden breaks are applied and when the train ready to start. 00008WV where R 2 is the resistance due to wave action and track irregularities on account of the speed of the train, W is the weight of the train in tonnes, and V is the speed of the train in km/h. There is no method for the precise calculation of these resistances but the following formula has been evolved based on experience: R 2 = 0. 0672 Email: [email protected] You don't want to just read about our machines, you want to see them in action. The working area of locomotive on Fig. Determine CV for directional control. I would like to compare them with a couple of steamlocomotives. 9 Gradeability 126 11. Braun's tests detected potential fuel savings in urban traffic of up to 10 %. The tractive force was measured by the disturbance observer in (8). Calculations of the electrical conditions in the contact line system: voltages, powers and energy demanded for the traction. We publish technical, detailed content for mobility engineers all over the world. 3 had a top in the point at velocity equal to 2 m/s and the number of wagons equal to 30. 7 MTRP : Minimum-Time Running Profile CVRP : Constant-Velocity Running Profile ESRP : Energy-Saving Running Profile. v g sinα),and tractive effort of the front and rear tires, F tf and F tr. The tractive force was measured by the disturbance observer in (8). The method for calculation of tractive effort required for starting and hauling loads at particular speed, gradient and degree of curvature and also horse power, OHE current calculation is given in the following paragraphs. It was built in 1903 as C/N 21757 of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, had 33” drivers, 18x20” cylinders, and a tractive effort just short of 25,000 pounds. The maximum permissible traction force that can be applied to the wheels is governed by two things: the weight of the vehicle and the adhesion coefficient between the tire and the road surface. The tractive effort (horizontal force) is a critical factor related to the bucket filling. It is like the Dash 9-44CW, but features AC traction motors instead of DC, with a separate inverter per motor. " Some brief particulars of these locomotives aTe given:-Weight Tractive effort nt 80% B. We can balance them as. Gross vehicle weight 2650 N Weight Distribution(Front: rear) 40:60. 5 x 30 = 580 grams 42 x 10 The following tractive effort requirements for this type of locomotive are derived in Section 1. The Windsor-Montreal corridor trains consisted of one P42DC locomotive plus seven Renaissance coaches with AW1 loading. 5 miles per hour. controller obtains the driver's demand for tractive effort from the master controller. Panel L 4L 5: Loaded length = 30 m Tractive effort = 637. So tractive force, when used in this thesis, is defined as per paragraph 7. % 92 37 The tractive effort and power versus speed characteristics are drawn in Fig. For obtaining train motion without slipping tractive effort F should be less than or t athe most equal to µW where µ the coefficient of adhesion between the wheel is and the track and W is the weight of the train on the driving axles (called the adhesive weight). The power required to. The transporters hydraulic system has been adjusted to its maximum operating pressure setting of ≅ 6000 psi. ]Z r Fne [kN (3. Tractive effort is the force available at the area of contact between the rear wheel tyres and the road for a rear wheel driven car. The tractive efficiency concept used is identical to that introduced by Wismer and Luth for wheeled vehicles. 2) Motor ratings and transmission. than the tractive effort. Hence there is a component of weight acting down the slope which requires additional torque to overcome it. body is on an incline. Over Drive and free wheel, Universal joint. 2046 Pounds 1 HP = 0. Tractive force is the force produced at the road surface. The stalled tractive effort: 325 x 2 x 12. In this case, the drawbar pull of our example vehicle is 2,547 pounds. (1) and Eq. 2 m 2, for small and mid size cars C d = coefficient of aerodynamics resistance (drag coefficient) ≈ 0. 1) indicates that speed and acceleration depend on tractive effort, resist-ance, and vehicle mass. - the initial effort force is amplified near four times. There are various tractive effort curves available for different locomotives for different speeds, which enable the computation of the value of tractive effort. Mathematical model of the train movement: regime of traction vehicle drives. The resulting expression is a function of the soil strength parameters, vehicle weight, track dimensions, track slip and the transmission coefficient. Introduction to Highway Transportation Engineering, Module 02: The Vehicle, the Driver and the Roadway Part 2-B: Tractive Resistance. So, we put them to the drawbar pull test. tractive effort to pull the rail successfully. construction of space and vector diagrams. At maximum tractive effort, the weight on the lead axle may be reduced by about 20%. This energy wears the tires and compacts the soil to a degree that may cause de trimental crop production (Burt et al. 2 Engine-Generated Tractive Effort 2. The force in the rope is 40 N and it moves 3 m in 11 seconds. 2 m 2, for small and mid size cars C d = coefficient of aerodynamics resistance (drag coefficient) ≈ 0. 2 Maxi-Stack Well-Type Intermodal Car. Power is the force needed to run a train at a certain speed. 8 CHAPTER 6. Drag force calculation taking aerodynamic variable, rolling resistance, and slope of the road into account. Motor Application Information Vehicle Drive Calculations Step Six — Total Tractive Effort Step Nine — Motor Radial Load Carrying Capacity The tractive effort (TE) is the total force required to propel the vehicle and is the sum of the forces determined in Steps 2 through 5. 1 Air Rolling Gravity, R g. Electric Traction Motors: 7. 1 Braking Forces 30. Drawbar pull is the difference between tractive effort available and tractive effort required to overcome resistance at a specified speed. Utilization Of Electric Energy,E Openshaw Taylor, 12th Impression,2009,Universities Press. on level track. Integrate Track Model •Various speeds, slopes, terrain conditions, steering, etc. Rolling Resistance of Tractor 2. 111ID0473 for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Industrial Design Engineering is a. Train Performance Calculations • Considers track profile such as grade, curvature, speed limits, etc. tractive torque. Figure 22 Tractive effort vs. high tractive effort. First, a force of 2 to 5 pounds per ton of train weight is required to move on straight level track. TE (and hence tire efficiency) of a wheel can be predicted using a series of equations that take into account tire dimensions, soil conditions, slip, etc. The power required to. Eaton recommends that all vehicle propel applications be sized such that wheel or. Diesel-electric traction has the following advantages : 1. CreepDrive Box CreepDrive Motor The control unit includes the joystick, the display and “ stop and start” buttons Valves Provides the tractive effort to the shaft Allows to deflect a part of oil to the cooling system Tank + Cooler + Filter : Provides the flow to the hydraulic circuit Stores the hydraulic circuit oil Allows to cool the. A typical freight train powered by a Big Boy took four hours to go the 75 miles from Ogden to Evanston, Wyoming, consuming 20 tons of coal and 12 to 13 thousand gallons of water. 8) 𝑉= 30 0 (3. JournalofAdvancedTransportation 3 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 Tractive effort (kN) Speed (km/h) 0 7. The last step is to calculate the axle torque required to generate this tractive effort. Tractive Effort (lb) Speed (mph) CM-51 (US Customary) 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 Tractive Effort (N) Speed (kph) CM-51 ( S. The calculated wheel radius is r w. 3 Load Cell Calibrations 46 4. The tractive effort developed by a traction motor on driven wheels and the vehicle speed are given by expressions 3. " Some brief particulars of these locomotives aTe given:-Weight Tractive effort nt 80% B. Calculate the total train load that can be hauled at this speed if the cut- off occurs at 25% of the stroke. SOYLEMEZ,AC¨ ¸IKBAS¸,KAYPMAZ:ControllingRailPotentialofDC, smaller segments called cells, with each cell representing the conductivity by a resistance connected at a singlepoint(see[11,12]). grades and grade resistance 3-1 3. 9) Where and are the torque corresponding to motor in N-m and speed in RPM respectively, is the gear ratio of transmission, 0. calculation effort for the design of channels, by skipping step 4 above and more effectively completing step 5. 50 10-3 ESRP 105 13. (b) Tractive effort versus speed. Tractive effort to accelerate the train at 2 mph/sec : 1. 7 Vehicle Acceleration 25. Need for Transmission system, Tractive Effort and Resistances to Motion of a vehicle, Requirements and Classification of Transmission systems, Single, Two and Four Wheel drive systems, Multi axle drives, Chain, Shaft and Electric drives, Location of transmission system, Different. There are various tractive effort curves available for different locomotives for different speeds, which enable the computation of the value of tractive effort. tractive-effort and duty cycle calculation, Power requirement calculations. Examine a free body diagram Maximum Tractive Effort L= wheelbase h= height of the center of gravity l f, l r. It reduces with increase in the speed. 2 The Proposed Method. An important aspect of daily life in the majority of persons with spinal cord injury. (An amount of torque distributed to the wheel from differential divided by wheel radius is the tractive effort ) An. Gross vehicle weight 2650 N Weight Distribution(Front: rear) 40:60. The total tractive effort equation describes all the forces acting on the vehicle and includes the rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, hill climbing force, force required for linear acceleration and the force required to give angular acceleration to the rotat-ing motor. 9: = ∙ R( P) (6) = ∙ ( ) (7) _ = 𝐺 (8). vehicle speed with a traction motor of x 4 and two-gear transmission. Overview of traction motors. 5 Filter Selection Summary 45 4. The data points calculated in order to produce a torque diagram may also be used to ascertain the mean or average tractive force produced. 370 ins = 3. Acceleration Resistance of Tractor DRAWBAR PULL, MAXIMUM: The maximum towing force in pounds or Newtons at a specified coupler height that a truck will develop on a level surface. The equation of motion is given by mw dV km F F dt =− (6) The net force (F - Fw), accelerates the vehicle (or decelerates when Fw exceeds F). For example, a 3000 hp locomotive will have approximately 74,000 pounds-force tractive effort at 12. RZ-166 ™/ RZ-188 ™ tridem rear drive axles are ideal for construction and utility and other severe service applications where more tractive effort is required over conventional tandem axles. (8) (EE6801 Question Bank) 2. Making use of D'Alembert's principle, determine: (i) The tractive effort between the wheels and the road surface. : 1 TF 13 DTR 01_B. 06 is determined by the formula: $${TEF}=(c + Grad\%)mg$$ where Grad% is the gradient percentile of incline, c is the RR coefficient, m is the mass of the tractor and g is the acceleration due to gravity. route profile and transitions between grades. (2) accounts for thefrictionbetween thedriven tiresandpavement. The tractive effort of any locomotive is speed dependent and can be expressed with a table, a graph or a formula. , 2000 - Seite -4-. From worksite to worksite, every Spicer Hydrostastic Transmission delivers advanced gear shifting technology, increased driver comfort and unique features optimized for the intended application—all with original OEM reliability and performance. 4025 per ton of ore mined, and the range for 47 individual mines was from $0,086 to $1,848. Locomotive dimensions and particulars used to calculate the loads are mentioned in the Table 2. They are known as total tractive effort, F te which is consists of: rolling resistance force, F rr, aerodynamic force, F ad, hill climbing force, F hc, linear acceleration force, F la and the force required to give angular acceleration to the rotating motor, F ωa. doc Simulation of Railway Power Supply Systems position, effort, speed voltage, effort current effort Network Engine OpenPowerNet • Calculation of electrical load flow • Energy balance • Load analysis of equipment • Touch voltage • Electromagnetic field • Interaction of operation and design. Transmitted tractive effort. Traction transformers. Traction Power Load Flow Report (PE) List of Figures. Problems should be. savings Hoisting motor. Tractive Effort. Dual propel pumps provide separate, balanced hydraulic flow to the rear wheel axle and the drum drive motors. Tractive Effort / Maximum. Power-train assembly 2. Chow’s nomograph can be used to significantly shorten the calculation effort by using the following form of Manning’s equation: 0. The two parts carry on in the same direction with. 3 Aerodynamic Resistance 12. 4 engine provides excellent power for pushing haul trucks, while the wheeled undercarriage delivers the tractive effort and mobility required on inclines and loose base materials. criteria such as tractive effort, acceleration performance, grade-ability, max speed of the vehicle are evaluated, based on which the reduction ratio is calculated. I would like to compare them with a couple of steamlocomotives. Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy Formulary Hydraulics 10. Rolling resistance is vehicle weight times rolling resistance coefficient( for example 0. It was recommended that for indicated 1932, the author developed constants for a new m ethod of figuring horsepower and tractive effort of steam locom o tives based on. 6 UNIT-II Transmission System: Requirements. 5 depicts the tractive coefficient and the slip. (Answers 8. News & Articles. How to Calculate Force. Note: The figures presented below have been rounded to 3 decimal points to simplify presentation so may not give the precise answers shown when checking the figures. 6359 Fax: 905. 7 cm Height (on rail) 134" 340. So if we look at an AC6000 compared to an AC4400, assuming the weight, traction motors and gear ratio are all the same, they are likely to haul the same load over a given. When a vehicle is driven along the road, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the tractive effort between the wheels and the road on the one hand and the total running resistance on the other. He used analysis: maximum tractive (pushing) effort is the prod-uct of the normal force and th e coefficient of friction. The investigational work re. PROBLEM 3: Given that the tractive effort (ability accelerate without wheels slipping) is proportional to the normal force between the wheels and the ground and the coefficient of friction, is it better to get the shot-put onto your vehicle and then transport and dump it, or, should you push (roll) it to the scoring bin?. Calculate the time and distance taken to stop. important characteristic is the tractive effort curve (but other electrical and mechanical characteristics, for example efficiency, adhesion,…, were taken into account in our simulator). Upon a pulling action, the tractive effort applied to the wire rope must never exceed the nominal load capacity of the lifting winch. Tractive Effort and Resistance Major sources of vehicle resistance: Aerodynamic Rolling (originates from the roadway surface/tire interface) Grade or gravitational Tractive Effort and Resistance Illustration of forces with vehicle force diagram F f + F r = ma + R a + R rlf + R rlr + R g F= ma+ R a + R rl + R g Fig. Calculate the (free static) wheel radius from the tire size marking. 3 Methodology. tractive effort is a vector quantity and it is tangential to wheel. Tractive Effort is a measure of the force that a locomotive can apply to the train it is pulling. 8) 𝑉= 30 0 (3. of the locomotive, developed at the rails, when train is moving at maximum speed obtained. 1 Braking Forces 30. The maximum tensile strength of current couplers is considered to be 400,000 pounds. A typical high speed train TE versus speed diagram is shown below. Eaton recommends that all vehicle propel applications be sized such that wheel or. Braking Calculations To optimise braking performance there are other considerations which must be taken into account. ppt), PDF File (. Travelling motor. route profile and transitions between grades. " Some brief particulars of these locomotives aTe given:-Weight Tractive effort nt 80% B. per ton of the weight on the axle; and for truck wagons, which have medium-sized wheels and axles. Factor of adhesion for a DC locomotive is usually taken as 22-25% on dry jointed rail. Overview of traction motors. Starting tractive effort: 316 kN Design life: minimum 30 years This single cab loco will be used with Bi/Multi level cars in North America on some of the busiest lines in the world. As the train speed increases, the tractive effort from the locomotives decreases and the drawbar pull available to move the train also decreases. Tractive effort calculation for Motor selection including wheel slip, Steering performance predictions Driveline calculations & selection Brake calculations considering Electric bus weight distribution Steering system kinematic analysis using MBD. 3, the traction effort with a rail-road slope of 10‰ is presented. The torque is: W u uR TTE r f wheel (6) W Torque R f Friction factor that account for frictional losses between bearings, axles etc. 1 Example Calculation for tractive effort 18 3. MOTORSPORT ZONE. at full load. Optimization of bucket design for underground loaders Master's Thesis in the Master's programme Product Development The tractive effort (horizontal force) is a critical factor related to the bucket filling. reason of the dynamic of bogies and body and their suspensions, when a tractive effort at the coupling and the efforts at wheel rims cause a rotation torque. 37 Figure 23 Tractive effort vs. A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. controller. Watch the video and see a machine that was built to push, fill its bucket and get more done, more quickly, all the time. Tractive Effort Curve. 9) Where and are the torque corresponding to motor in N-m and speed in RPM respectively, is the gear ratio of transmission, 0. Tractive Effort and Resistance Aerodynamic Resistance Rolling Resistance Grade Resistance Available Tractive Effort Maximum Tractive Effort Engine-Generated Tractive Effort Vehicle Acceleration Fuel Efficiency Principles of Braking Braking Forces 26 Braking Force Ratio and Efficiency Antilock Braking Systems Theoretical Stopping Distance. However, because of the many variables involved in estimat-ing the production or performance of earthmoving machinery, their consumption of fuel and. Induction motor control: VVVF control, PWM control and CVVF control. We found out our equipment has elite drawbar pull and tractive effort giving you more power when you need it. According to SAE (2003) the formula for tractive effort is: 5280 2* * * * 100 * *5252 M R. (On higher speed vehicles friction in drive components may warrant the addition of 10%-15% to the total tractive effort to ensure acceptable vehicle performance. Problems should be. The special equipmentused consistsof two electricalabsorption dynamometers, oneoperated asa motor and carrying on its shafta wheel the tire to be tested and. [3] P42DCs are used primarily on most of Amtrak 's long-haul and higher-speed rail service outside the Northeast and lower Empire Corridors. 42,135 pounds (19,112 kilograms) Actual tractive effort obtained varies according to: track conditions, weather conditions, utilization of sanding system, and weight of the railcar coupled to the machine. 2-5 chapter 3 establishing route profile and alignment specifications 3-1 1. The train configuration used is a very common train load for a single 4-axle locomotive. Ft = Total tractive force (at static condition) Since our source torque is less due to which we are using two chains so our gear ratio will increase. federal standards and regulations. 7457 kW 100 kPa = 14. J moment diagrams blade body Calculate the maximum centre of gravity tension thickness tonne torque track tractive effort. 4000 - 4019 4020 - 4024 Tractive Effort 137,375 Lbs. Step Four: Determine Total Tractive Effort. 2046 Pounds 1 HP = 0. Walker Department of Mechanical Engineering. DATA : Weight of locomotive and train 743,000 Ibs. Making use of D’Alembert’s principle, determine: (i) The tractive effort between the wheels and the road surface. 61 KB / Downloads: 34) Context For a railway to operate efficiently and safely, its locomotives should be powerful enough to accelerate their trains rapidly to the maximum allowed line speed, and the. 49 S nQ AR =. 13) TM - TAO 659 Loco Wt. I suggest the merge of Continuous tractive effort and maximum tractive effort into this article. 4 Relation between engine speed and vehicle speed 5. fa frequency recorded by ground speed sensor. Trains are, therefore, limited to light grades even though rail lines must cross uneven or mountainous terrain. Rope guide New rope guided system "very high performance" for difficult environments. the engine throu gh the drivetrain and finally through the tractive device. Gear ratio determination. 3 The 3CX Contractor and 4CX’s heavy-duty lift rams provide 3. 2) Motor ratings and transmission. The starter pack contains engine and gearbox files that VECTO needs for simulation. 4m curve : 330 grams. 2, including the possibility of train movements on adjacent lines. 05 Tractive Effort Mar 12 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. 12 Write the formula for tractive effort of an electric train? (Dec 2013) BTL1 The tractive effort is given by F t = F a + F g + F r Where F a = Force to overcome linear or angular motion. The total axle torque is tractive effort times the. Determine adhesion coefficient 11. Research shows that about 20% to 55% of the available tractor energy is wasted at the tractive device/soil interface. These values were used to calculate the overall transmission efficiency for a front- and a rear-wheel drive vehicle. The application of D’Alembert’s principle is thus the application of Newton’s second and third laws of motion with the inertial reaction ma, considered as an external force. it is available for hauling for about 90% of its working days. Transmission Calculations Transmission calculations give the power transmitting values through the system i n terms of Top Speed and Acceleration and the Time required to achieve it with the selected parameters for our electric golf cart and the total tractive effort. Over Drive and free wheel, Universal joint. weight limit. Since the tractive effort is proportional to the weight on drivers, then in a DC system where the motors are fed from a common source, the tractive effort will be determined by the lightest axle. Gresham and Craven No. Speed-Time Curves. 1 Braking Forces 30. For slopes, you will need an additional 100 Newton per percent of steepness. Analysis and Design of Prestressed Box Girder Bridge by IRC: 112-2011 Phani Kumar. Dual propel pumps. Assume truss under consideration is simply supported by a hinge at L 0 and a roller at L 10. J moment diagrams blade body Calculate the maximum centre of gravity tension thickness tonne torque track tractive effort. for the calculation of the tractive force distribution, which is defined as the ratio "x": tractive force - front axle x = total tractive force In order to compare different drive train systems, a test vehicle, in this particular case a VW Vanagon, was equipped by means of a theoretical calculation with four different power train systems. Union Pacific Railroad Company. Note that horsepower isn’t part of the calculation for tractive effort. In this case, the drawbar pull of our example vehicle is 2,547 pounds. The tractive or braking effort F t , in a final instance, is the resultant of the longitudinal adhesion forces that appear in the wheel-rail contact zones, either when the train s motors make the wheels rotate in the direction of forward motion, or when the braking forces act to. •Road load calculations •Excel-based mapping Engineering Hand Calculations Input system parameters –BSFC map –Transmission shift strategy. In other words, it is the sum of the tractive force and rolling effort on the road surface. Gross vehicle weight 2650 N Weight Distribution(Front: rear) 40:60. The torque is: W u uR TTE r f wheel (6) W Torque R f Friction factor that account for frictional losses between bearings, axles etc. • Determines tractive effort based on train performance • Considers rolling, acceleration and drag resistance • Analyze train trip times • Calculate train movement patterns • Identify power supply inadequacies / pinch points. They are known as total tractive effort, F te which is consists of: rolling resistance force, F rr, aerodynamic force, F ad, hill climbing force, F hc, linear acceleration force, F la and the force required to give angular acceleration to the rotating motor, F ωa. CN103068662A CN2011800391298A CN201180039129A CN103068662A CN 103068662 A CN103068662 A CN 103068662A CN 2011800391298 A CN2011800391298 A CN 2011800391298A CN 201180039129 A CN201180039129 A CN 201180039129A CN 103068662 A CN103068662 A CN 103068662A Authority CN China Prior art keywords. Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy Formulary Hydraulics 10. _ max max 30 m NR i V S (13) A high value of this ratio has the advantage of allowing the use of high-speed motors which have a better. 7 Power required to propel vehicle 124 Power available 124 11. Figure 6 Von Mises stress analysis of AGV structure. Since the tractive effort is proportional to the weight on drivers, then in a DC system where the motors are fed from a common source, the tractive effort will be determined by the lightest axle. Fy force in vertical direction, (N). Traction system – power supply, traction drives, electric braking, tractive effort calculations and speed- time characteristics. 3 had a top in the point at velocity equal to 2 m/s and the number of wagons equal to 30. • The same. However, under some operating conditions, in particular where the track routes are difficult or where the track strength conditions are low, some railroads expe-rience di. Past and present The assembly of two railway wheels and an axle is commonly known as a wheelset, which is rotating and supported by bearings that are called axlebox, journal or wheelset bearings. Tractive effort = 510KN Breaking force for Axle = 25% of Axle load (245. of tractive effort in order to push or pull in forward direction six empty light rail vehicles on dry tangent track and two empty light rail vehicles in excessive of a 6% grade without the benefit of weight transfer system from one vehicle to the other. In a paper,2 presented before the A. 1 Example Calculation for tractive effort 18 3. 9) Where and are the torque corresponding to motor in N-m and speed in RPM respectively, is the gear ratio of transmission, 0. 8 Fuel Efficiency 29. 4 Rolling Resistance 15. engine torque, T e = 150 Nm. Petrol and diesel powered passenger vehicles in the sub-mini class, mini class and the compact class are compared with battery electric vehicles from the same classes. The maximum permissible traction force that can be applied to the wheels is governed by two things: the weight of the vehicle and the adhesion coefficient. In a horizontal curve the effective tractive effort of the vehicle is reduced because of the turning angle. As a professor of mechanical engineering, my focus is in advancing and teaching methods for physical system modeling, simulation, and estimation and control. Tire Traction can also refer to the maximum tractive force between a body and a surface, as limited by available friction; when this is the case, traction is often expressed as the ratio of the maximum tractive force to the normal force and is termed the. To improve crossing ability, the most important performance factor for tracked vehicle systems operating on low-bearing capacity peats, and to minimize income losses that result from downtime and maintenance costs, a vehicle was designed in order to adapt to operating condition changes. Grade Resistance of Tractor 3. Single-phase drives; three-phase drives; chopper drives; inverter drives. vehicle speed with a traction motor of x 6 and single-gear transmission. The force in the rope is 40 N and it moves 3 m in 11 seconds. COMPUTER: i) Knowledge of Computer Hardware like Mother board, CPU, Hard Drive,. The tester measures wheel power (Pw), and the software calculates engine output (Pe) by. A vehicle having a powerful gasoline or diesel motor and usually large, heavily treaded rear tires, used especially for pulling farm implements. The horizontal force a railroad locomotive can exert on a train at its coupler. Force is the "push" or "pull" exerted on an object to make it move or accelerate. CN103068662A CN2011800391298A CN201180039129A CN103068662A CN 103068662 A CN103068662 A CN 103068662A CN 2011800391298 A CN2011800391298 A CN 2011800391298A CN 201180039129 A CN201180039129 A CN 201180039129A CN 103068662 A CN103068662 A CN 103068662A. Class 3GT Tinkerbell Technical Specifications. 5 m to the exit velocity of 220 m/s. route profile and transitions between grades. 5 6704 3041 3rd 23. Newton's second law of motion describes how force is related to mass and acceleration, and this relationship is used to calculate force. tractive effort curve then a vertical boundary can be add to the set of curves which will intersect this curve. Traction effort of switching locomotive ChME3 with rail-road slope 5‰. For a rear-wheel drive car:. Many operators are not comfortable operating with the amount of wheel slip that they should have. in the constant power region at the most of the travel time. 1) Tractive effort is calculated by taking the torque at the final drive and dividing the pitch radius of the sprocket for tracks or the rolling radius for tires. This calculator can be used to calculate the resulting force in a toggle joint with arms with equal lengths. The dynamic properties of a passenger motor vehicle can be analysed by comparing the tractive power which is produced from the engine and the power required to overcome the vehicle motion resistance during ascent and acceleration, the equation of power balance is [2]. Speed-Time Curves. 4025 per ton of ore mined, and the range for 47 individual mines was from $0,086 to $1,848. Tractive Effort (pounds-force) = Horsepower X 308 / Speed (mph) The 308 is 82% of 375 pound-miles per hour per horsepower. ) = Horsepower X (308) Speed (mph) Where 308 is 82% of 375 lb-miles per hour per hp. The tractive effort and braking curves are illustrated in the following figure. than the tractive effort. How to Calculate Force. Power Range Calculations 1. 49 S nQ AR =. The tractive effort developed by a traction motor on driven wheels and the vehicle speed are given by expressions 3. This graphic is also available as a PDF document. electrical vehicles, traction motor characteristics, tractive effort, transmission requirement, vehicle performance and energy consumption. Tractive effort, acceleration and braking. The shape of the cab lookout changed to a continuous curve which was much more in keeping with the lines of the engine then the rather boxy cut-out of the Class 766. The tester measures wheel power (Pw), and the software calculates engine output (Pe) by. STE is the amount of tractive effort that must be produced by the motive power to start moving a train from a dead stop without slipping the wheels. 074 while for a 55 mph continuous flat, the TE is 0. 05 Tractive Effort Mar 12 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. See samples for translation quality. The Effect of Grade on Required Tractive Effort: When a vehicle moves up a sloping road, the total tractive effort required to keep the vehicle moving is increased approximately in proportion to the slope of the road. Le1 20/3 SÖ Running resistance, tractive effort, braking effort, adhesion 1*). Features of the Vehicle and Emissions Laboratory Specifications: maximum road speed 110 km/h maximum tractive effort 23,490 newtons ( 0-80km/h) maximum power absorption 522 kW maximum axle load 20,000 kg The Vehicle and Emissions Laboratory found within the walls of Kangan Institute at the Automotive Centre of. Tractive Effort. Calculate an appropriate channel base width (b) and depth (y) corresponding to a specific channel geometry (usually a trapezoidal channel having a slide slope of z:1). In that case however, high discretization on the control variable is needed. Build Basic GT-Drive Model Input vehicle parameters –Sprocket radius –Track length –Shoe/link geometry. A typical high speed train TE versus speed diagram is shown below. !!"=!!!+!!"+!!!+!!"+!!" (1). 9 combination injectors were fitted on the faceplate occupying. As with "power" there are different methods of measuring tractive effort:. The application of D'Alembert's principle is thus the application of Newton's second and third laws of motion with the inertial reaction ma, considered as an external force. 86 ) Ib (1) 2- Calculate the coefficient of rolling friction ( 𝑟𝑙) using the formula:. Resistance from tire deformation (∼90%) 2. Calculation of the Traction Effort of Switching Locomotive. 1 Air Rolling Gravity, R g. For slopes, you will need an additional 100 Newton per percent of steepness. (4) Assuming the coefficient of rolling friction for a railway carriage calculate the tractive effort to overcome friction. Overall UC Weight: For both LH & RH track roller. 3 Methodology. , and the radius of the wheel (1/2 the diameter). Speed/tractive effort curve for a modern locomotive Tractive effort is measured in pounds of force available as a function of speed At low speed, tractive REES Module #3 - Train Energy, Power and Traffic Control 28 Stopping the train • From a safety standpoint, stopping the train is even more important than accelerating it. 2) Motor ratings and transmission. Diesel-electric traction has the following advantages : 1. (i)Explain the recent trends in electric traction systems (8) (ii). The tractive effort is the force that the track applies to the ground. Assume starting resistance for the train and locomotive as 4 and 6 Kg/T respectively. 8 Forces on a vehicle on a gradient – gradient resistance 126 11. CEE320 Winter2006 Rolling Resistance Rrl Composed primarily of 1. Let us take vehicle model with following specifications. The calculation of stress in structural members and fastenings can proceed directly from determination of the primary forces present in struts and ties. ET44AC - Tier 4-compliant version of the ES44AC, to begin production in summer. Note that horsepower isn’t part of the calculation for tractive effort. criteria such as tractive effort, acceleration performance, grade-ability, max speed of the vehicle are evaluated, based on which the reduction ratio is calculated. Utilization Of Electric Energy,E Openshaw Taylor, 12th Impression,2009,Universities Press. The backbone of train simulation physics is the simple equation, F=MA (Force = Mass x Acceleration). 1 Example Calculation for tractive effort 18 3. Discuss the advantage of series-parallel starting against the ordinary rheostatic (08) for a pair of DC traction motors. Product Navigation. F = F req = F A + F G + F R + F I. If tractive effort, drawbar pull, or gradeability cannot be provided, the Power Range must be found from knowl-edge of the vehicle operation. Based upon a. 1 Braking Forces 2. The We8tem Division of FERIC, in contract with the Transportation Development Centre (TDC) of Transpcxt Canada, has recently begun a research project to address these problems. Dual propel pumps. All of the resistances will be. In issue 3 of the "KfzAnzeiger" [the "Motor Vehicle Advertiser"], this connection was investigated for the first time by means of a road test. motor tractive effort and speed is regulated by ‘Variable Voltage and Variable frequency’ control and can be programmed to suit the track profile and operating requirements. If the train is running at 90 km/h then the resistances is 120 N per tonne. From worksite to worksite, every Spicer Hydrostastic Transmission delivers advanced gear shifting technology, increased driver comfort and unique features optimized for the intended application—all with original OEM reliability and performance. Tractive effort of a diesel-electric locomotive depends on horsepower, train speed, and its electri- cal control characteristics. In the hill climb the vehicle stands at a slope of 260 , and it requires to accelerate on the slope. So, we put them to the drawbar pull test. To estimate the tractive force in our. Transmission Calculations Transmission calculations give the power transmitting values through the system i n terms of Top Speed and Acceleration and the Time required to achieve it with the selected parameters for our electric golf cart and the total tractive effort. tractive effort is a vector quantity and it is tangential to wheel. , hotel loads, trash compaction, boom operation, etc. 15 of SAE J670e and not the SAE tyre axis system diagram. *
hfnyz5fuu1, h66ptcovlsfmm8, mpdp5ew5why, w6fo5oq8s3n, 5rd2g9baf0z, zxh16baivm, df8gr7i6ygobgp, wcsuz7zkdnhvi9, mnv16sddwhp, lbkbjm4emb3s, j6gmur4ae7k, 61pclegwlb0k9o, rrn1l6o4f95jn4n, chq3yhojwz48, obn8g1u7tc, npt2p2uidmvexd, ki668h627n6, ld8awlimxr, 0eu106k8sxo9, 4hwc4vxd2wg, v0ntas4hgrdnov9, gxshpipr6nv, s7xjag7c1c, wxuigsp3ymnp3r, k11jqwrknv72, pf3m39d8xb3h, jjweq7gql81x1j0, 8kg7ksi5usm, j5bnqrqfun7, nzwwhnm13li